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Why People Ghost — and How to Get Over It

Time to go ghostbusting.

By Adam Popescu

Something strange happened at the coffee shop the other day. The gentleman in line in front of me — mid-40s, suit, bad haircut — ordered a latte. “Whole milk,” he said before changing to half and half, then almond milk. “For here,” he mumbled, then shook his head. “No. To go.”

I ordered an espresso. Our drinks arrived at the same time and I picked up mine, added sugar, sat, sipped. The latte remained at the counter, the barista calling his name over and over. But the man in the suit was gone. Why would someone order a drink and disappear?

Ghosting — when someone cuts off all communication without explanation — extends to all things, it seems. Most of us think about it in the context of digital departure: a friend not responding to a text, or worse, a lover, but it happens across all social circumstances and it’s tied to the way we view the world.

Asking for a beverage and then jetting may not seem equal to ditching an unwanted romance, but it’s really the same behavior. Uncomfortable? Just don’t respond. A ghost is a specter, something we think is there but really isn’t. We’ve all probably acted like this if we’re honest. We’ve all probably been ghosted, too, though sometimes we probably didn’t notice. These are supernatural times.

Last week, my sister and I got in an argument and her boyfriend didn’t text me back — a micro-ghost move.

“There are different levels of ghosting,” said Wendy Walsh, a psychology professor named one of Time’s 2017 people of the year for her whistle blowing that helped promote the #MeToo movement. My sister’s boyfriend is what Dr. Walsh calls lightweight ghosting. Midweight is when you’ve met a person a handful of times and you engage in deep avoidance , which hurts their feelings more. “Third wave is the heavyweight, when you’ve entered a sexual relationship and you leave, blindsiding the other.”

The pace of modern life makes it hard enough to maintain real life friendships; it’s impossible to actually be friends with everyone you’re supposedly simpatico with online. (Here’s a good test: How many of your Facebook friends are real? If you’ve met someone once and now they’re on your feed for life, get rid of them! If a friendship feels like too much work, maybe it is. The good ones shouldn’t feel like a chore on your to-do list, or that one side is doing all the communicating). Sometimes the best course is to let someone go, even if you were once close. Growing apart can be a friendship’s natural evolution; ditto for lovers, an even touchier discourse. But it’s the way you let go that matters.

Belief, destiny and growth

Studies have shown that social rejection of any kind activates the same pain pathways in the brain as physical pain, meaning there’s a biological link between rejection and pain. That goes for friends, partners and, if it had feelings, that lonely latte.

Staying connected to others has evolved as a human survival skill. Our brains have what’s called a social monitoring system that uses mood, people and environmental cues to coach us how to respond situationally. But when you get ghosted, there’s no closure, so you question yourself and choices which sabotages self-worth and self-esteem.

That ambiguity, said the psychologist Jennice Vilhauer , is the real dagger. She calls ghosting a form of the silent treatment akin to emotional cruelty (the pain it causes can be treated with Tylenol, according to multiple studies ). So, how do you avoid it in the first place?

“Well, I think I’m particularly choosy about who I tend to interact with,” said Dr. Vilhauer, the former head of Los Angeles’ Cedars-Sinai Medical Center psychotherapy program. “You can get a sense early on of what kind of individual you’re dealing with.”

There’s no checklist, but watching how people treat others is a good indicator.

“Ghosting has a lot to do with someone’s comfort level and how they deal with their emotions,” she added. “A lot of people anticipate that talking about how they feel is going to be a confrontation. That mental expectation makes people want to avoid things that make them uncomfortable.”

When it comes to complex relationships, the ease and sheer volume of choice is making us numb emotionally, Dr. Vilhauer said.

“In the dating world where people are meeting a lot of people outside of their social circles, that creates a level of feeling that you don’t have a lot of accountability if you ghost someone,” she said. “Their friends don’t know your friends so it’s easy to do if you’re never going to run into them again in real life.”

What we really want

According to Dr. Vilhauer, who is in a long-term relationship that began on a dating site, the flip side is a subset of the population looking for real connection.

“People are craving authenticity,” she said. For those looking for love in online emotional echo chambers, “the more you date, the more it feels unsuccessful, the more you get discouraged.”

She added: “Being vulnerable is the number one thing that creates intimacy between people and if you worry about being hurt all the time, you’re not able to be vulnerable and it affects the quality of connection.”

That fear is the same thing causing so much ghosting, said Gili Freedman , who studies the language of rejections at St. Mary’s College of Maryland. One eyebrow-raising tip she offers when you’ve made a mistake and ghosted someone is to not say “Sorry .” Why, I wondered? It only makes the injured party feel more aggrieved, she said.

In a 2018 paper , Dr. Freedman discovered ghosting has a lot to do with how we feel about our future — or whether we think our mate is the “one,” which is a question of belief versus destiny. Either someone believes the relationship is capable of growing or they’re seeking an archetypal partner (what’s typically called a soul mate).

“Individuals who have stronger destiny beliefs are more likely to ghost,” she said. “If you’re with someone and you realize they’re not the one for me, you’re going to think it’s not much of a point to put in the effort, so you ghost. These people believe relationships are either going to work out or not.”

Those with less of a fixed mind-set exhibit fewer feelings of helplessness and express themselves in conflicts with romantic partners.

Her work’s most counterintuitive finding?

“People seemed to think it was more acceptable to ghost in a friendship than a romantic relationship regardless of destiny of growth belief,” Dr. Freedman said. “We think of friendship as these long lasting relationships that provide social support and it’s interesting to think people are saying it’s a little better if you do it in a friendship. How you look at relationships affects how you look at ghosting.”


“It’s really important to remember if someone ghosts you that behavior says more about them than you,” Dr. Vilhauer said. “It’s about their discomfort. You have to keep trying.”

One way to avoid this cycle is modifying how we reject people, suggests Dr. Freedman.

Don’t apologize, she said, but be honest about boundaries, whether it’s going to a movie with someone or spending the rest of your life together. Just be real.

“The good middle ground is explicitly rejecting someone and telling them ‘no,’ not ‘I’m sorry,’” she said.

It may sound harsh, but it’s better than being left in limbo. That may be why so many daters don’t get the hint and keep texting. That ostracism leads to rage, frustration and further alienation.

“If you’re apologizing, you’re enforcing a social norm and if you say ‘sorry,’ it’s very normal to say ‘that’s O.K., I forgive you,’” she said.

Taking a risk to tell someone how you really feel — even if it’s not what they want to hear — has benefits. Self-esteem, stress, blood pressure, spending more time with people you care about. And getting that time back opens up self-discovery. Maybe you’ll find what makes you most fulfilled is nature , which promotes alpha brain waves, fuels creativity and reduces depression (my personal fix).

Perspective can be a good path to empathy, Dr. Walsh said. Our always-on culture has eroded a lot of empathy, which is why we find ourselves stepping on each others’ feelings. Yet for all the choice, we’re all still seeking connections. The power of the internet and its ease in upsetting our lives is only poised to grow. It’s how we use this intoxicant that will determine its impact.

“We are wired to bond,” Dr. Walsh said. “The phenomenon of love, our greatest drug and delusion evolved for two people to get together and have offspring. The great survivors will be the ones who still figure out love.”

Adam Popescu is a Los Angeles writer whose debut novel, “ Nima ,” based on his BBC reporting from Mount Everest, publishes in May. Follow him @ adampopescu .

A Guide to Building and Nurturing Friendships

Friendships are an essential ingredient in a happy life. here’s how to give them the care and attention they deserve..

How does one make meaningful friendships as an adult? Here are some suggestions ,  useful tools  and tips from an expert .

If you are an introvert, it can be hard to reconcile the need for close connections with the urge to cancel social plans. Here is how to find your comfort zone .

A friendship with a sibling can be a lifelong gift. Whether you’ve always been close, or wish you got along better, here’s how to bolster your connection .

All relationships require some work. For your friendships to thrive , focus on your listening skills, compassion and communication.

American men are in a “friendship recession,” but experts say a few simple strategies can help. One tip? Practice being more vulnerable with your pals .

It’s quite common for people to feel jealousy or envy toward their friends. Luckily, there are ways to turn those emotions into an opportunity  for growth.

Being a good friend means offering your support in times of need. Just remember: Sometimes less is better than more .

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What Is Ghosting?

When a Friend or Romantic Interest Disappears Without Explanation

Wendy Rose Gould is a lifestyle reporter with over a decade of experience covering health and wellness topics.

ghosts definition urban

 Verywell / Catherine Song

  • Increased Use
  • Why It Happens
  • How to Cope
  • Why You Shouldn't Ghost

Alternatives to Ghosting Someone

  • Is It Ever OK?

Ghosting is a relatively new colloquial dating term that refers to abruptly cutting off contact with someone without giving that person any warning or explanation for doing so.

Even when the person being ghosted reaches out to re-initiate contact or gain closure, they’re met with silence. As you can see, it’s called ghosting because it involves someone essentially “vanishing” into thin air as if they were a ghost.

The term is generally used in reference to a romantic relationship, but it can technically refer to any scenario where contact unexpectedly ceases, including friendships and family relationships.

Signs of Ghosting

Ghosting is often obvious, but it can also be a gradual process. The other person might start by 'soft ghosting,' where they progressively minimize contact over a period of time. Some early signs that someone might be ghosting you include:

  • They regularly bail out on plans to get together
  • They struggle to make commitments
  • They don't like to share personal information
  • They don't want you to meet their friends or family
  • They disappear from social media
  • They rarely respond to your texts or calls
  • Your conversations with them lack depth, and they seem disinterested

If you have made repeated efforts to contact someone and they won't respond, it is a strong indicator that you've been ghosted.

Ghosting can also occur on social media. It involves cutting off all social media contact with another person without explanation. The other person may unfriend, unfollow, or even block you on all social media platforms. They may even go so far as to deactivate or delete their social accounts to prevent all contact.

The History of Ghosting

The term "ghosting" became mainstream about seven years ago alongside the surge in online dating ; it became an official entry in the Merriam-Webster dictionary in 2017 . Interestingly, though, the term was actually used as far back as the 1990s. Some pop culture writers and scholars have even used the term to describe ghostwriting in hip-hop music.  

Bree Jenkins, LMFT

The word ‘ghosting’ gained popularity long before [2017] via ‘90s hip-hop, often in the sense of escaping.

Though a new term, the act of ghosting existed well before the digital age. “I think references of ‘going for a loaf of bread and never coming back’ are examples of ghosting," says Bree Jenkins, LMFT , a dating coach in Los Angeles, Calif. "Ghosting used to be leaving a person and moving away or not leaving [them with] your contact information—its earlier origins are even the simple act of leaving a party or social gathering without notice and goodbyes.” 

How the Term Became Popular

So why did the term “ghosting” become mainstream just within the last decade? The argument is that online dating has simply made it way easier to ghost people.

With the higher frequency of ghosting instances, and with more people who could relate/understand being ghosted or doing the ghosting, the term was widely adopted.

Why Do Some People Choose to Ghost?

Ghosting is often seen as an immature or passive-aggressive way to end a relationship. In other instances, it may even be a form of emotional abuse.

There are two primary reasons why a person ghosts another, and often it's a combination of the two.

It's the Easy Route

The first is that some find it's way easier (in the short-term, anyway) to ghost someone than to have an awkward, uncomfortable heart-to-heart about why you’re not interested in maintaining contact.

The person doing the ghosting often wants to avoid confrontation or dealing with someone else’s hurt feelings, so they simply cease all communication and hope the hint is delivered.

Option Overload and Fatigue

“With internet dating comes what may seem like infinite choices as opposed to walking into a bar and having limited options," explains Margaret Seide, MD , a board-certified psychiatrist based in New York City.

"Because there are so many choices, online daters are quick to have the ‘OK, next’ or the ‘Yeah, but what else?’ mindset," says Seide. "Sometimes the person is nice enough, but is juggling a few other people and that person just didn’t make the cut.”

There are also other reasons why people ghost, including being fearful of the other person's reaction to rejection.

How Ghosting Can Impact the Ghosted

As you can imagine (or know from personal experience), ghosting can have a real psychological impact on the person who’s being ghosted.

It’s almost like sudden loss [or] grief, especially the first time you’ve ever been ghosted. You are shocked, and you’re in denial, thinking things such as ‘maybe they didn’t see my text.’ Then you feel anger.

Jenkins adds, “Next, the feelings of depression [can] kick in along with feelings of poor self-esteem as you mentally reexamine your relationship and last conversation for possible warning signs."

Ghosting is inherently ambiguous because there is a lack of explanation for why the relationship ended. For the person who has been ghosted, it can lead to significant feelings of rejection, guilt, grief, and shame.

A person who has been ghosted may be left wondering what this type of behavior says about them, but it is important to remember that ghosting says more about the person who cuts off contact than the person who is ghosted.

Working Through Grief After Being Ghosted

The grief cycle may not run that exact course, but being ghosted often triggers a flood of ranging emotions. Thoughts of ‘Not only did the person not want to date me, but I wasn’t even deserving of an explanation’ can make someone feel dehumanized and devalued.

It’s often more painful when it’s a relationship that’s marinated a bit, but the ghosted person can also feel this way if it was a new connection. It can take some time to work through the pain, but with acceptance the person being ghosted can move on.

To gain closure in a situation where you feel you’ve been ghosted, Meide says it can help to send a message by saying something like, “Hey, I haven’t heard from you in a while. I’m not sure what happened, but I don’t want to continue pursuing this. My time is valuable and I don’t want to leave this door open. Best of luck with things.” While the ghoster may not respond, it can help provide closure.

How Ghosting Can Impact the Ghoster

Ghosting doesn't just impact the ghosted; it also is a detriment to the ghoster. The bottom line here is that ghosting is either a passive aggressive way to end a relationship, or it is the “easy way out.” Either way, it’s not doing the ghoster any favors in their ability to communicate with others.

“Ghosting doesn't take into account how you affect other people and it makes it easier for the person to dip out or disengage when things get uncomfortable. There’s no way to have a healthy, long-term relationship without being able to work through problems and use your communication skills,” says Jenkins.

Jenkins adds that ghosters create unhealthy problem-solving patterns for themselves, and that they also contribute to a larger pattern of societal flakiness that increases their chances of being ghosted as well.

Avoiding the easy route of ghosting someone will benefit both parties. Meide says that the best thing you can do when ending a relationship , however long or short, is to treat the other person as you’d like to be treated.

“I usually suggest two spoons of sugar with the medicine in the middle for delivery,” Meide says. “It can sound something like ‘Hey, you seem like a really great catch, but I don’t feel it’s working between us. I respect your time and just wanted to be honest. Warm regards and take care.’

"Or, ‘Hi—it’s been cool getting to know you, but I’ve decided to take a break from dating and don’t want to waste your time or be dishonest. Best of luck with everything.’"

These messages are short, sweet, honest, and end with an outro to signal that you don’t want to have a long and drawn out conversation. It’s possible that you may get a negative or hurt reaction from the other person, but it’s far better to exit the relationship after giving an explanation than to ghost completely.

Is Ghosting Someone Ever OK?

In many cases, ghosting is considered a rude route to take when trying not to talk to someone anymore, or especially when ending a more serious or established relationship. However, there are most definitely exceptions—when further communication can be a bad thing or even potentially unsafe.

Situations in which ghosting can make sense is if you find out the person is married or in a relationship , participating in illegal or unsavory behaviors, or if they display toxic traits.   In such cases, you do not owe that person an explanation for abruptly ending the relationship. 

If you are uncomfortable or feel threatened by someone in any way, remember it's best to follow your gut instinct. You may simply have a bad feeling. In cases like this, you don't need to prove that this person "deserved" to be ghosted—ghosting might be a useful mode of self-protection and peace of mind.

If you feel your best interest would be to completely cut off contact with the person in question, don't let your feelings of guilt keep you from doing what's right for you and what will ultimately keep you safe.

A Word From Verywell

Ghosting has become more commonplace in the digital age, but just because something is easy or common doesn’t mean it’s always the ideal route to take. Consider how ghosting might impact both parties and do your best to treat others with kindness and honesty. If you’re the person who’s been ghosted, it’s OK to feel confused, sad, and angry. Sending a quick note to end the relationship yourself can help you regain a sense of power and confidence in yourself and give you closure.

However, if you feel threatened or deeply uncomfortable by someone, you don't owe them anything. Sometimes ghosting, when used thoughtfully, can be a healthy mode of self-protection and removing yourself from a potentially bad situation.

Navarro R, Larrañaga E, Yubero S, Víllora B. Psychological Correlates of Ghosting and Breadcrumbing Experiences: A Preliminary Study among Adults . Int J Environ Res Public Health . 2020;17(3):1116. doi:10.3390/ijerph17031116

Anderson HE. No Bitin’ Allowed: A Hip-Hop Copying Paradigm for All of Us . 2011.

 Vilhauer J. When Is It OK to Ghost Someone ? Psychology Today . 2019.

By Wendy Rose Gould Wendy Rose Gould is a lifestyle reporter with over a decade of experience covering health and wellness topics.

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Definition of ghosting

Examples of ghosting in a sentence.

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'ghosting.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

1919, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Dictionary Entries Near ghosting

ghost kitchen

Cite this Entry

“Ghosting.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ghosting. Accessed 17 Oct. 2023.

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the soul of a dead person, a disembodied spirit imagined, usually as a vague, shadowy or evanescent form, as wandering among or haunting living persons.

a mere shadow or semblance; a trace: He's a ghost of his former self.

a remote possibility: He hasn't a ghost of a chance.

( sometimes initial capital letter ) a spiritual being.

the principle of life; soul ; spirit .

Informal . ghostwriter .

a secondary image, especially one appearing on a television screen as a white shadow, caused by poor or double reception or by a defect in the receiver.

Also called ghost im·age [ gohst -im-ij] /ˈgoʊst ˌɪm ɪdʒ/ . Photography . a faint secondary or out-of-focus image in a photographic print or negative resulting from reflections within the camera lens.

an oral word game in which each player in rotation adds a letter to those supplied by preceding players, the object being to avoid ending a word.

Optics . a series of false spectral lines produced by a diffraction grating with unevenly spaced lines.

Metalworking . a streak appearing on a freshly machined piece of steel containing impurities.

a red blood cell having no hemoglobin.

a fictitious employee, business, etc., fabricated especially for the purpose of manipulating funds or avoiding taxes: Investigation showed a payroll full of ghosts.

to ghostwrite (a book, speech, etc.).

Engraving . to lighten the background of (a photograph) before engraving.

to suddenly end all contact with (a person) without explanation, especially in a romantic relationship: The guy I’ve been dating ghosted me.

to leave (a social event or gathering) suddenly without saying goodbye: My friend ghosted my birthday party.

Digital Technology . to remove (comments, threads, or other digital content) from a website or online forum without informing the poster, keeping them hidden from the public but still visible to the poster.

to ghostwrite.

to go about or move like a ghost.

(of a sailing vessel) to move when there is no perceptible wind.

to pay people for work not performed, especially as a way of manipulating funds.

to suddenly end all contact with a person without explanation, especially in a romantic relationship: They dated for a month and then she ghosted.

to leave a social event or gathering suddenly without saying goodbye: I'm getting tired so I think I might just ghost.

Digital Technology . to remove comments, threads, or other digital content from a website or online forum without informing the poster, keeping them hidden from the public but still visible to the poster.

fabricated for purposes of deception or fraud: We were making contributions to a ghost company.

Idioms about ghost

give up the ghost ,

to cease to function or exist.

Origin of ghost

Synonym study for ghost, other words for ghost, other words from ghost.

  • ghost·i·ly, adverb
  • ghost·like, adjective
  • de·ghost, verb (used with object)
  • un·ghost·like, adjective

Words Nearby ghost

  • Ghiordes knot
  • Ghirlandaio
  • ghost dance
  • ghost fishing

Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2023

How to use ghost in a sentence

The expansion of ghost kitchens was well underway before the pandemic.

The spread of third-party delivery apps and ghost kitchens means that many customers largely interact with restaurants through apps, not the restaurants directly.

New “ ghost kitchens,” or delivery-only restaurants capitalizing on the rise of Grubhub and UberEats, popped up, many specializing in wings.

Last year police in New York state arrested an Army drone operator and alleged Boogaloo Boi on charges that he owned an illegal ghost gun.

Group Nine has been thinking about expanding further in this direction by leveraging the ghost kitchen it launched through Thrillist back in December.

The well, ghost or no ghost , is certainly a piece of history with a bold presence.

Now, she says, her coworkers are actively pranking each other and blaming it on the ghost .

First, the ghost of his departed partner, Jacob Marley, comes calling, his face emerging from the doorknob.

As Monday turned to Tuesday morning, five hostages had escaped and the Central Business District had turned into a ghost town.

The ghost writer in question is assumed to be one Siobhan Curham—an established author of both YA and adult fiction.

T least, thet's all I think 't wuz; though thar wuz those thet said 't wuz Claiborne's ghost .

Meanwhile Fleurette had her nourishing food, and grew more like the ghost of a lily every day.

Our poor planet will be but a silent ghost whirling on its dark path in the starlight.

For a moment there was no consciousness in their gaze; then a whimsical ghost of a smile crept about his mouth.

Now it will be as well here to inquire what good has ever resulted from this belief in what is commonly understood to be a ghost ?

British Dictionary definitions for ghost

/ ( ɡəʊst ) /

the disembodied spirit of a dead person, supposed to haunt the living as a pale or shadowy vision; phantom : Related adjective: spectral

a haunting memory : the ghost of his former life rose up before him

a faint trace or possibility of something; glimmer : a ghost of a smile

the spirit; soul (archaic, except in the phrase the Holy Ghost )

a faint secondary image produced by an optical system

a similar image on a television screen, formed by reflection of the transmitting waves or by a defect in the receiver

See ghost word

Also called: ghost edition an entry recorded in a bibliography of which no actual proof exists

Another name for ghostwriter : See ghostwrite

(modifier) falsely recorded as doing a particular job or fulfilling a particular function in order that some benefit, esp money, may be obtained : a ghost worker

  • give up the ghost

(of a machine) to stop working

See ghostwrite

(tr) to haunt

(intr) to move effortlessly and smoothly, esp unnoticed : he ghosted into the penalty area

Derived forms of ghost

  • ghostlike , adjective

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Other Idioms and Phrases with ghost

In addition to the idiom beginning with ghost

  • Chinaman's (ghost of a) chance

The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

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Ghost Definition

  • ghostwriter
  • supernatural visitant
  • etheric being
  • ethereal being
  • incorporeal being
  • materialize

Other Word Forms of Ghost

Origin of ghost.

From Middle English gost , gast , from Old English gāst (“breath, soul, spirit, ghost, being”), from Proto-Germanic *gaistaz (“ghost, spirit”), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰeizd- , *ǵʰizd- (“anger, agitation”), *ǵʰeysd- , *ǵʰisd- (“anger, agitation”). Cognate with Scots ghaist (“ghost”), West Frisian geast (“spirit”), Dutch geest (“spirit, mind, ghost”), German Geist (“spirit, mind, intellect”), Swedish gast (“ghost”), Sanskrit हेड (heḍa, “anger, hatred”).

From Wiktionary

Middle English gost from Old English gāst breath, spirit

From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition

Ghost Sentence Examples

I think I saw a ghost , in the hall!

I could feel a cold sweat passing over me like a ghost at a séance.

The ghost of innate ideas seems to be all that it had left.

Curiously, Buddhism itself is ruled by the ghost or shadowy remainder of belief in transmigration - Karma.

Now it's a ghost town.

Related Articles

fall pun life's gourd

Ghost Is Also Mentioned In

  • given up the ghost
  • double kill
  • mary-celeste

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Words Starting With

Words ending with, unscrambles, words starting with g and ending with t, word length, words near ghost in the dictionary.

  • ghillie-suit
  • ghost brand
  • ghost-at-the-feast

Cambridge Dictionary

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Meaning of ghost in English

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ghost noun ( SPIRIT )

  • A headless ghost walks the castle at night - or so the story goes.
  • According to tradition , a headless ghost walks through the corridors of the house at night .
  • The Society for Psychical Research is investigating reports of a ghost at the old vicarage .
  • Have you ever seen a ghost?
  • There's no such thing as ghosts.
  • astral plane
  • astral projection
  • incorporeal
  • necromancer
  • reincarnation

ghost noun ( MEMORY )

  • abiding memory
  • associative memory
  • at/in the back of your mind idiom
  • confabulation
  • corporate memory
  • have a memory like an elephant idiom
  • learn something by rote idiom
  • live (on) in the memory idiom
  • long memory
  • memory bank
  • rediscovery
  • reminiscence
  • short-term memory

ghost verb ( WRITE )

  • Around 80 percent of celebrity books are ghosted .
  • Tony is ghosting the memoirs of Eddie, an ex-con who went to prison for his part in a bullion robbery .
  • He is a freelance writer who is ghosting an article for a corporate executive .
  • bang something out
  • bash something out
  • borrow something from something
  • re-registration
  • readability
  • reformulate

ghost verb ( END COMMUNICATION )

  • She was furious about being ghosted by Dan.
  • If you want to finish with a boyfriend , tell him, don't just ghost.
  • He ghosted his girlfriend and then she became his boss .
  • affiliation order
  • break something up
  • break up with someone
  • child support
  • give someone the elbow idiom
  • give someone the heave-ho idiom
  • give someone the push idiom
  • go off with someone
  • run out on someone/something

You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:

ghost verb ( MOVE )

  • Sarah suddenly ghosted out from behind the shed .
  • Three youths ghosted out from a narrow alleyway a short distance ahead of her.
  • Several black shapes were ghosting swiftly over the grass .
  • ballistically
  • make for somewhere/something
  • make towards something/someone

ghost | American Dictionary

Translations of ghost.

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Word of the Day

existing as an idea, feeling, or quality, not as a material object

Vast, mahoosive and monstrous (Words meaning ‘very large’)

Vast, mahoosive and monstrous (Words meaning ‘very large’)

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What is Friday the 13th? Why people may be superstitious about the day

Spooky season is officially here. Scorching summers have finally cooled off, a yassified jack-o-lantern has taken over Tik Tok, and people are uniting over a hatred of candy corn .

But nothing is quite as spooky as a Friday the 13th that falls in October, and this is one of those years. The 13th day of the month falls on a Friday one to three times a year. This is the second Friday the 13th this year ( the most recent one was in January ), and the next one won't be until September 2024.

Fear for Friday the 13th may have been amplified by the slasher-movie series , but where did the superstition originate?

Dr. Phil Stevens, retired anthropology professor from the University at Buffalo and author of an upcoming book "Rethinking the Anthropology of Magic and Witchcraft: Inherently Human", spoke with USA TODAY about the holiday and why it is an example of "magical thinking."

Why people get ink on Friday the 13th: How the day became lucky for the tattoo industry

Superstitions, taboos and good luck numbers are forms of magical thinking

Stevens said that he likes to think of the superstition around Friday the 13th as an example of magical thinking. He says that magical thinking is when someone believes is there is a causal relationship between two things that are otherwise unrelated. For example, Friday and 13 together take on a different quality when they fall on the same day.

He also thinks of it as a taboo, as superstition has a negative connotation, even when someone uses it to describe their own belief.

"The word taboo actually is appropriate for this kind of a superstition. Because it's the it's the term that means avoiding establishing a magical connection. People can actively work magic to make things happen, recognizing the connections between things, but if the connections between things could cause an unfortunate result, then people avoid those connections." Stevens said.

Some people look for positive connections between things. For example, China kicked off the Olympics in 2008 at 8:08 p.m. on the eight day of the eight month because the number is associated with good luck.

Another example is when someone has a good luck charm or assigns a higher value to an item after it has belonged to a celebrity, Stevens said.

Biblical origins of Friday and the number 13

Friday the 13th combines two taboos that come from the bible, accord to Stevens. Based on the story of the Last Supper of Jesus, 13 people were seated at the table and it happened on a Thursday. He was arrested that evening, and crucified the next day, on a Friday.

"So 13 is associated with that terrible event. And Friday, the 13th you get a double whammy. You get both of these elements coming together: the taboo against 13, and the crucifixion, which was on a Friday," Stevens said.

Even though the taboo is tied to the Last Supper, Stevens said it didn't become widespread until 1,000 years after Jesus's story when more people became interested in the bible. Now he thinks the taboo is weakening as people embrace the number 13 more, and it is only a matter of time before it phases out.

Why superstitions are a universal human experience

Stevens said superstitions, taboos and lucky numbers are part of a human need to find order in a crazy world.

"I suggest that some form of superstitious behavior will be eternal," Stevens said. "Some form of magical thinking will also be evident, because it gives us some measure of control. The world is vast, complex, impersonal, unpredictable and the sense that one has little bit of control over things is comforting."

So whether avoiding black cats, cracks on the sidewalk or looking over your shoulder on Friday the 13th, Stevens says it all makes you perfectly human.

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  • The Supreme Court’s very brief, very revealing new decision about guns, explained

Why the Supreme Court just smacked down one of the judiciary’s worst GOP partisans.

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Share All sharing options for: The Supreme Court’s very brief, very revealing new decision about guns, explained

A display of guns arranged on a table.

Late Monday afternoon, the Supreme Court handed down a very brief order establishing that sellers of “ghost guns,” weapons that are sold dismantled in ready-to-assemble kits , must comply with the same gun safety laws and anti-crime laws as any other gun seller.

At this point you may be experiencing déjà vu , because in August the Supreme Court also handed down a brief order establishing ghost gun sellers must comply with these laws. The more recent case, known as Garland v. Blackhawk Manufacturing Group , arrived on the Court’s docket after federal district court Judge Reed O’Connor, a former Republican Capitol Hill staffer known for handing down dubiously reasoned opinions that benefit Republican causes , effectively tried to neutralize the Supreme Court’s August 2023 decision.

Notably, while the Court’s August order was a 5-4 decision , with Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Amy Coney Barrett joining the Court’s three Democratic appointees, no justice publicly dissented from the order handed down on Monday — which suggests that even the four justices who dissented in August may have viewed O’Connor’s most recent ruling in favor of ghost gun sellers as an act of defiance that needed to be quashed.

The Supreme Court is back for a new term. Ian Millhiser is here to explain the stakes.

The 2023-2024 SCOTUS term will feature a growing list of cases that could transform the US, its government, and our right to free speech and public safety. We’re tracking them here .

Ian has covered the Supreme Court extensively as a senior correspondent for Vox. Read more of his reporting here .

The decision is revealing not just because it potentially indicates that the Court ran out of patience for O’Connor’s antics. Monday’s decision also suggests that there is a solid majority on the Court against ghost guns, something that was at least somewhat in doubt after the Court’s August decision.

What are ghost guns?

Ghost guns are kits that, at least according to O’Connor, open up a giant loophole in federal gun law.

Federal law requires gun buyers to submit to a background check before they can purchase a gun, and it also requires all guns to have a serial number that can be used to track them if they are used in a crime. These laws apply to “any weapon ... which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive .” It also applies to “the frame or receiver of any such weapon,” the skeletal part of a firearm that houses other components, such as the barrel or trigger mechanism.

Thus, even if someone purchases a collection of firearm parts intending to assemble the gun at home, they will still face a background check when they purchase the gun’s frame or receiver, and that frame or receiver must have a serial number.

Ghost guns, meanwhile, are typically sold as a collection of parts that can easily be assembled into a functional gun. Often, the frame or receiver in this kit is sold in a slightly unfinished condition. According to the Justice Department , these incomplete frames and receivers are often very easy to finish. In some cases, a ghost gun buyer can build a working gun after drilling a single additional hole in the kit’s frame. In other cases, they merely need to sand off a small plastic rail.

Nevertheless, O’Connor initially ruled in June 2023 that ghost gun kits are exempt from the federal background check and serial number laws, even though these laws apply to “any weapon” that can be “readily converted to expel a projectile.” O’Connor reasoned that “weapon parts ... are not ‘weapons,’” only a fully complete firearm is. And thus the kit as a whole does not count as a “weapon.”

Similarly, O’Connor also claimed that the nearly complete receivers sold in ghost gun kits are immune from the law because “that which may become or may be converted to a functional receiver is not itself a receiver.”

In any event, in its August order the Supreme Court seemed to disagree with O’Connor’s conclusion that gun manufacturers may evade federal law by simply not drilling a single hole in a single gun part. But that order was just ambiguous enough that O’Connor tried to get around it in a new decision he handed down in September .

Why did this case need to come up to the Supreme Court twice?

To understand why O’Connor may have thought he could get away with a second court order ruling in favor of ghost gun manufacturers, after the Supreme Court already smacked down his first decision in their favor, it’s helpful to understand an ongoing debate among the justices about how much power individual federal judges should have to set nationwide policy.

In his initial June decision, O’Connor held that all ghost gun manufacturers nationally are immune from the background check and serial number laws. Some members of the Supreme Court have complained that federal trial judges should not have this power to set national policy — or at least that they should use that power only rarely. As Justice Neil Gorsuch wrote in a recent concurring opinion, “a district court should ‘think twice — and perhaps twice again — before granting’ such sweeping relief .”

(Notably, Gorsuch has not actually done much to rein in nationwide orders targeting the Biden administration — though he was quite alarmed when judges issued such orders blocking Trump administration policies . Gorsuch dissented from the Court’s August decision blocking O’Connor.)

The Supreme Court’s August order, meanwhile, was only one paragraph long . And it did little to explain why the Court disagreed with O’Connor. So O’Connor appears to have bet that a majority of the justices didn’t actually disagree with his attempt to create a loophole that swallows up two major gun laws — they just didn’t want him to issue a nationwide order.

And so, in his September order, O’Connor once again ruled that ghost gun makers may defy federal law, but he applied that order only to two ghost gun companies that were actually parties to this lawsuit . Other companies that wish to sell ghost guns were beyond the scope of O’Connor’s September order, and so were still obligated to comply with federal law.

As a practical matter, O’Connor’s more limited September order would still have had a nationwide effect. If just one company is allowed to sell ghost guns without background checks, then criminals and other individuals who would fail a background check may buy guns from that company. And, as the Justice Department points out, the two companies that do benefit from O’Connor’s order “are commercial distributors selling their products over the internet,” so O’Connor’s September order would have let anyone in the country obtain a ghost gun without a background check.

In any event, that won’t happen. Monday’s Supreme Court order puts O’Connor’s latest decision on ice, at least temporarily while this case is still being litigated. The case will be heard next by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, a far-right court with a history of affirming partisan judges like O’Connor, even when the Supreme Court has previously indicated that the Fifth Circuit should not do so .

But regardless of what the Fifth Circuit rules, Monday’s order suggests that there are five solid votes on the Supreme Court against O’Connor’s approach to ghost guns, and not merely five votes who thought that O’Connor’s June order should not have applied to every company in America.

And the fact that no justice publicly dissented from the Monday order also suggests that the Court wanted to send a message to O’Connor — and possibly to other judges like him — that they cannot defy the Supreme Court of the United States.

Will you support Vox’s explanatory journalism?

Most news outlets make their money through advertising or subscriptions. But when it comes to what we’re trying to do at Vox, there are a couple reasons that we can't rely only on ads and subscriptions to keep the lights on. First, advertising dollars go up and down with the economy. We often only know a few months out what our advertising revenue will be, which makes it hard to plan ahead. Second, we’re not in the subscriptions business. Vox is here to help everyone understand the complex issues shaping the world — not just the people who can afford to pay for a subscription. We believe that’s an important part of building a more equal society. We can’t do that if we have a paywall. That’s why we also turn to you, our readers, to help us keep Vox free. If you also believe that everyone deserves access to trusted high-quality information, will you make a gift to Vox today?

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2024 Rolls-Royce Ghost Ékleipsis Is for Royals Who Like the Solar Eclipse

The moon will partially block the sun in much of the Western Hemisphere this Saturday, and Rolls-Royce is honoring the event with a special-edition Ghost.

Headshot of Caleb Miller

  • The 2024 Rolls-Royce Ghost Ékleipsis celebrates the natural majesty of the solar eclipse with special copper paint and Mandarin orange accents.
  • The cabin is decked out with an elaborate dashboard artwork and a bejeweled timepiece, as well as a unique Starlight headliner that mimics the sequence of an eclipse.
  • Only 25 examples are being built, and they are all already sold.

rolls royce ghost ekleipsis

The Ékleipsis is painted in Lyrical Copper, lending the Ghost a moody aura in dark settings but sparkling under brighter lighting. A bright orange hue called Mandarin appears on the front bumper and brake calipers, "recalling the intense pulses of sunlight witnessed as the eclipse progresses," Rolls-Royce says. A delicate, hand-painted Mandarin coachline also runs along the Ghost's shoulder line, with a dotted motif meant to represent the "transition from sunlight to darkness."

rolls royce ghost ekleipsis

Rolls-Royce is well-known for its Starlight headliner, with hundreds of tiny lights embedded into the car's ceiling to emulate the night sky. The Ékleipsis has a unique setup, with an animation that plays when the doors close and engine is started that displays a circle of 940 "stars" representing the corona of light that peeks around the moon during the eclipse, surrounded by 192 other LEDs that act as the stars that suddenly become visible during daytime when a total eclipse occurs. The animation lasts seven minutes and 31 seconds, the maximum duration of a total solar eclipse, after which all of the LED stars illuminate. Rolls-Royce says this animation took a full year to develop.

rolls royce ghost ekleipsis

On the dashboard sits an intricate artwork consisting of 1846 laser-etched "stars," with the dazzling display taking a singular technician 100 hours to create. To the left sits a unique timepiece with a 0.5-carat diamond integrated into the clock's bezel, inspired by the "diamond ring" effect that sees a single point of light become visible right before and after the moon moves in front of the sun. The two-tone seats have over 200,000 perforations in a unique pattern, exposing Mandarin accents under the black leather.

rolls royce ghost ekleipsis

Rolls-Royce fitted a few other neat touches: the door sill plates are illuminated and the umbrella hidden in the doors—a Rolls-Royce staple—wears Mandarin piping. The Ghost Ékleipsis also comes with a unique indoor car cover. Rolls-Royce says all 25 examples have been claimed, and while no price was revealed, we bet those customers paid a pretty penny more than the Ghost's $351,000 starting price.

Headshot of Caleb Miller

Caleb Miller began blogging about cars at 13 years old, and he realized his dream of writing for a car magazine after graduating from Carnegie Mellon University and joining the Car and Driver team. He loves quirky and obscure autos, aiming to one day own something bizarre like a Nissan S-Cargo, and is an avid motorsports fan.

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Watch CBS News

What is the Gaza Strip? Here's how big it is and who lives there.

By Caitlin O'Kane

Updated on: October 12, 2023 / 7:39 PM / CBS News

Early on Saturday, Hamas militants broke through the border between Israel and Gaza, launching a massive attack that left more than 1,200 Israelis dead, most of them civilians, and another 2,700 wounded. The attack triggered a swift response by the Israeli military and at least 900 people have been killed in the Gaza Strip in retaliatory airstrikes, according to the Gaza Health Ministry. 

Hamas, which the U.S. classifies as a terrorist organization, has controlled the Gaza Strip since 2007. 

What is the Gaza Strip?

The Gaza Strip is a narrow, 25-mile stretch of land pressed against the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Egypt.

When Israel  was established in 1948 , many Palestinian refugees where forced to move to the strip of land. In 1967, Israel gained control of Gaza after its victory in the Six-Day War against Egypt, Syria and Jordan.

A Palestinian uprising in 2000 unleashed a new wave of violence between Israelis and Palestinians, and Israel decided to leave Gaza in 2005, withdrawing its forces and removing some 9,000 Jewish settlers living there. 


Soon after, Hamas defeated the Palestinian Authority, the governing body in charge of Palestinian-populated areas, in elections in Gaza. In 2007, the militant group expelled the Palestinian Authority and gained full control of the territory. Hamas, unlike the Palestinian Authority, doesn't recognize Israel's right to exist.

Hamas and other militant groups have managed to launch attacks against Israel from Gaza, using rockets, drones and ground operations. Israel has responded with numerous military campaigns that have damaged infrastructure in Gaza and led to the death of many civilians.

Palestinians take down the Israel-Gaza border

How big is the Gaza strip?

The strip is about 139 square miles –that's slightly more than twice the size of Washington, D.C. Its border with Israel is about 36 miles and its border with Egypt is about eight miles. There are about 24 miles (40 kilometers) of coastline on the strip, but it has been blocked by the Israeli Navy since 2009 and is closed to all maritime traffic.

Who lives in the Gaza Strip?

The Gaza Strip is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. More than 2 million people live in the territory. 

Hamas's capture of Gaza led to an Israeli air, sea and land blockade, and conditions in the territory have worsened for years, with Israel's critics referring to it as an "open-air prison." Most people rely on humanitarian aid and are unable to travel without Israeli permission.

Forty percent of Gaza's population is under the age of 14, according to the CIA. Unemployment is high, electricity is only available for about half the day and many people do not have sufficient access to  clean water , according to the Israeli organization Gisha. 

As Israel ramps up its current offensive against Hamas, civilians are already feeling the impact. "There are no shelters or bunkers or safe routes or safe zones in Gaza," Omar Ghraieb, a resident of Gaza, told CBS News. "So it's not like you can sit down and plan with your family on how to leave."

Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant has ordered a "complete siege" of Gaza, vowing "no fuel, electricity or food supplies," will be allowed in or out. 

Palestinian journalist Hassan Jaber told CBS News that there is not a lot of access to bomb shelters to protect civilians from the aerial strikes. "There is no safe place in Gaza," he said. 

Jaber also said that some residents of the city could face starvation within "days."  

Tucker Reals, Charlie D'Agata, Marwan Al-ghoul and Emmet Lyons contributed to this report.


Caitlin O'Kane is a digital content producer covering trending stories for CBS News and its good news brand, The Uplift .

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WHO warns water is running out as desperately needed aid piles up outside Gaza

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  1. 12 Haunting Urban Ghosts of a Bygone Age

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  2. 12 Haunting Urban Ghosts of a Bygone Age

    ghosts definition urban

  3. 12 Haunting Urban Ghosts of a Bygone Age

    ghosts definition urban

  4. 12 Haunting Urban Ghosts of a Bygone Age

    ghosts definition urban

  5. 12 Haunting Urban Ghosts of a Bygone Age

    ghosts definition urban

  6. 12 Haunting Urban Ghosts of a Bygone Age

    ghosts definition urban


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  1. Urban Dictionary: Ghost

    An emotional state when you have no emotion and you go silent for a long while. To lose empathy, the feeling of a conscience, soul. To go cold toward people, with a machine and emotionless state of speech, mindset unsympathetic. To feel as if you dissapeared , no one would care or make a fuss

  2. Urban Dictionary: Ghosting

    When a person cuts off all communication with their friends or the person they're dating, with zero warning or notice before hand. You'll mostly see them avoiding friend's phone calls, social media, and avoiding them in public. I haven't seen Tom in 3 months. I think he may be ghosting me. by SunnyDoll August 20, 2016 Get the Ghosting mug. Ghosting

  3. Urban Dictionary: Ghost

    1.) The act of disappering on your friends without notice . 2.) Cancelling plans with little or no notice. Guy #1: Hey, have you heard from Frank ? Guy #2: No, I think he is ghosting on us! by pfidr34 August 30, 2006 Get the ghosting mug. ghosting

  4. Why People Ghost

    A ghost is a specter, something we think is there but really isn't. We've all probably acted like this if we're honest. We've all probably been ghosted, too, though sometimes we probably ...

  5. Urban Dictionary: Ghosted

    Urban Dictionary: Ghosted Ghosted When a person expresses love, interest, or affection for someone or something and the person they are speaking to only says "Ditto", like Patrick Swayze in the movie Ghost. Ron told his girlfriend he loved her, only to be ghosted by her response of "Ditto". by B. Peppers October 18, 2007 Get the Ghosted mug.

  6. Ghost Definition & Meaning

    noun ˈgōst plural ghosts Synonyms of ghost 1 : the seat of life or intelligence : soul give up the ghost 2 : a disembodied soul especially : the soul of a dead person believed to be an inhabitant of the unseen world or to appear to the living in bodily likeness 3 : spirit, demon 4 a : a faint shadowy trace a ghost of a smile b : the least bit

  7. What Is Ghosting?

    Dictionary.com defines ghosting as "the practice of suddenly ending all contact with a person without explanation, especially in a romantic relationship."

  8. Urban Dictionary: Ghost

    Urban Dictionary: Ghost ghosts ghosts are the spirits of deceased people. they roam around in areas that they have been noted to have been before death. most ghosts cant hurt you unless it is a juggernaught . poltergeists are the demon spirts. most can not be seen by the naked eye but do appear on camera.

  9. Ghosting: What It Means and How to Respond

    The term "ghosting" became mainstream about seven years ago alongside the surge in online dating; it became an official entry in the Merriam-Webster dictionary in 2017. Interestingly, though, the term was actually used as far back as the 1990s. Some pop culture writers and scholars have even used the term to describe ghostwriting in hip-hop ...

  10. Ghosting: A Word We're Watching

    Ghosting (the noun) and ghost (the verb) both describe this phenomenon of leaving a relationship of some kind by abruptly ending all contact with the other person, and especially electronic contact, like texts, emails, and chats. Ghosting itself has gotten quite a bit of attention over the last year, but we have evidence of this use of ghost ...

  11. Ghosting Definition & Meaning

    informal : the act or practice of abruptly cutting off all contact with someone (such as a former romantic partner) usually without explanation by no longer accepting or responding to phone calls, instant messages, etc. Romeo one minute, where'd he go the next?

  12. Ghosting (behavior)

    Ghosting, simmering and icing are colloquial terms that describe the practice of suddenly ending all communication and avoiding contact with another person without any apparent warning or explanation and ignoring any subsequent attempts to communicate.. The term originated in the early 2000s, typically referring to dating and romantic relationships.In the following decade, the media reported a ...

  13. Ghost Definition & Meaning

    verb (used without object) to ghostwrite. to go about or move like a ghost. (of a sailing vessel) to move when there is no perceptible wind. to pay people for work not performed, especially as a way of manipulating funds. Informal.

  14. Ghosting: What It Is, Why It Hurts, and What You Can Do About It

    Ghosting is by no means limited to long-term romantic relationships. Informal dating relationships, friendships, even work relationships may end with a form of ghosting. For the person who does the ghosting, simply walking away from a relationship, or even a potential relationship, is a quick and easy way out.

  15. Ghost

    Some ghosts are said to be friendly and help people who have problems. People or animals that can sense ghosts cannot feel them touching them as they are the spirit of a person, or a personified force. Ghosts are said to form right after people die, or even centuries later. Many people make up stories or urban legends.

  16. Ghost

    v t e In folklore, a ghost is the soul or spirit of a dead person or non-human animal that is believed to be able to appear to the living. In ghostlore, descriptions of ghosts vary widely, from an invisible presence to translucent or barely visible wispy shapes to realistic, lifelike forms.

  17. What do you call someone who believes in ghosts?

    6. If you are an adult and take that subject seriously, you may be called a "spiritualist". If you simply believe they exist and fear their possible appearance, you are "superstitious", even though this word is not specific for ghosts and can be used for several other beliefs which are not based on reason or knowledge.

  18. Ghost definition and meaning

    1. countable noun A ghost is the spirit of a dead person that someone believes they can see or feel. ...the ghost of Marie Antoinette. [ + of] The village is haunted by the ghosts of the dead children. [ + of] Synonyms: spirit, soul, phantom, spectre More Synonyms of ghost 2. countable noun

  19. ghost

    ghost. From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Related topics: Folklore, Computers ghost1 /ɡəʊst $ ɡoʊst/ S3 noun [ countable] 1 spirit the spirit of a dead person that some people think they can feel or see in a place ghost of the ghost of Old Tom Morris They say the young girl's ghost still haunts (=often appears in) the house.

  20. Ghost Definition & Meaning

    Ghost definition: The spirit of a dead person, especially one that is believed to appear to the living in bodily form or to haunt specific locations.

  21. Ghost Definition & Meaning

    [count] : the soul of a dead person thought of as living in an unseen world or as appearing to living people a house haunted by ghosts He looks like he's just seen a ghost. [=he looks frightened] — sometimes used figuratively She is still haunted by the ghosts of her past. [=she is still troubled by bad memories of the past] 2

  22. GHOST

    verb uk / ɡəʊst / us / ɡoʊst / ghost verb (WRITE) [ T ] ( also ghostwrite) to write a book, article, etc. for another person to publish under their own name: A writer friend of his was ghosting the autobiography of a jockey. Most of Reagan's newspaper columns were ghosted for him. More examples SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases

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